Friday, September 23, 2011

Coated Microscope Slides & Cover Slips

Quick review and summary of microarray surfaces.  What type of slide to use for each application and other fun facts.
The series 3 glass has the lowest intrinsic background of any glass available in industry.  Lower than borosilicate and rivals that of fused silica. Polished for homogeneity (like all our products) and available in all our widely used surface treatments and coatings. 
Molecules attach to this surface through the positive charge on the surface provided by the "amino-silane" chemistry.  It is superior to poly-l-lysine because the positive charge is covalently bound to the glass. Cross link DNA in all it's various forms to this surface.  Keep in mind that only very dry DNA will crosslink and attach.  Can be used in place in any type of protocol that uses a Poly-l-lysine surface.
This reactive aldehyde surface binds very specifically to primary amines.  We use a C6 amino linker and bind PCR products and oligonucleotides to this surface for a variety of DNA microarray assays...mostly genotyping applications.  The amine-aldehyde bond is called "schiffs base". The USDA uses this surface in a food safety application.
We have two protocols for this surface, one for DNA microarray and one for Protein.  Surface is very versatile, it will covalently bind primary amine, hydroxyl and thiol groups. Good for BACs in CGH applications, print BACs in 50% DMSO to denature, bake slides for 30 minutes at 80C.  Surface can also be used in a similar fashion as our aldehyde surface with C6 amino for oligos and PCR products.  The specificity of binding to the amino linker is not as high, but it does not matter, it still works great. My favorite surface!
Great surface for protein and peptide microarrays. Surface is hydrophobic so it provides very good small tight spots, high binding capacity and low background (when blocked properly).  Surface is highly reactive.  When using for peptide microarray, be sure to get the peptides from us, we can put a special linker on the N and C terminus of the peptide to improve the performance and we have very good prices on peptides up to 20mers. Peptides do not need to highly purified, the surface attachment purifies them.  Every peptide QC'd by mass spec. 
To put it simple....very clean, polished, homogeneous and durable microscope size slide glass substrate. Surface flatness, parallelism and homogeneity is excellent, no detectable surface imperfections.  Glass is much harder and more durable than sodalime and borosilicates, background in microarray scanners is also very low.  Ready for your favorite chemistry right out of the box.
Designed to solve the problems of NHS hydrogels.  It is a a highly-reactive NHS-ester surface to enable covalent coupling of biomolecules containing primary amines.  The surface binds with high efficiency and its hydrophilic nature prohibits non-specific absorption providing very low background in complex binding and hybridization reactions. Long term storage is done at room temperature unlike other NHS slides that must be frozen.  Surface is hydrophilic so be careful when spotting, spots do come our larger on this surface than all our others.
AThe 500 or 2000 Å thick layers of gold or silver allow immobilization of DNA, protein, peptides, and other molecules for microarray, surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and life sciences applications. 
We do it all, any size, shape and thickness you want!.  Many successful projects recently providing our various surfaces treatments and coatings onto cover slips.  Unique size parts to fit into your micro-fluidic biochip processing device.  Many point of care devices require a microarray size other than a microscope slide size glass. 
Use our SuperStreptavidin in place of this, avidin is cheaper, but does not work as good.
The theory here is that antibodies can bind to the protein a/g on the surface is a specific and oriented way.  We make them because someone wanted it, SuperEpoxy and SuperNHS are much better ways to make antibody microarrays.
Lots of good publications have come out of Stanford using this surface to attach peptides with a biotin N terminus linker.  It works, but I prefer our epoxy covalent method.  Many protocols use biotin/streptavidin detection schemes...difficult to do detection with the same method at the same time.
Lets face facts, if you really want to do a good microarray you want to be on glass.  Nylon has been around for a long time and traditional methods can be used.  Use with SpotWare Colorimetric Microarray scanner.  Anything white and non-reflective show a background count of 0 using our colorimetric detection method.
You do not have to pre-wet the this membrane to get proteins to attach!  The entire slide surface is coated with PVDF and is white and non-reflective.
Very similar to SuperPVDF. Again, we recommend glass and fluorescent detection when available. Dynamic range and sensitivity are all superior.  However, colorimetric data if executed right can work well.  Use with SpotWare Colorimetric Microarray scanner.
Entire slide coated with a 150 micron layer of nitrocellulose. Good for protein microarrays and will also bind DNA through crosslinking.  Use with SpotWare Colorimetric Microarray scanner.
The mirror is on the back of the slide, the reason for this is to amplify signals on microarrays. Fluorescent signals scatter is 360 degrees, all directions.  The mirror reflects signal to the detector of the microarray scanner that would normally be lost.  All our surfaces and glass types can get the mirror.
We have all kinds of useful gasketed tools to help amortize the cost of microarray surfaces over many experiments.  For example, if the slide substrate costs $10.00 and you can run 24 microarray tests on that slide, the surface chemistry cost per experiment is less than 42 cents.
All coatings available with various hydrophobic mask designs. Unlimited types of masks can be custom made.  This particular design shown here matches or 16 and 24 well reaction tools.  If you use the tool, you do not need the masked slide. Some people like the extra protection that the hydrophobic barrier provides.
More mask designs....
and even more....
Printing microarrays to bottoms of plates is not so simple.  The plastic superstructure of the plate has to be maneuvered around with the spotting device, which eats up a lot of time.  Printing microarrays directly to the glass and then assembling the the plate afterward is makes microarray manufacturing go faster and easier.  All our various chemistries are available in this plate size glass.  ProPlates are purchased from Grace Biolabs. 
But if you won't want to bother with assembly as describe above, then use these glass bottom plates. These are better than normal glass bottom plates because the wells are square. Makes it a lot easier to calibrate and print microarrays to the bottoms of these plates. These surface chemistry activated microplates can be used with the NanoPrintSpotBot and other microarray robots capable of spotting microarrays and macroarrays into the bottoms of microtiter plates.
I am not a big fan of hydrogels, 2D surfaces are much more popular than these types for good reason.  If you gotta have a hydrogel, I've got  you covered. : )
No comment. Cheap and sometimes that is just what is required.

Our homogeneous glass makes the sputtering of thin films onto them work really well.